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These developments facilitated the rise of diskografija (recording industry) and estrada in Serbia Svetlana Ražnatović Ceca, and in Bosnia Dino Merlin. svetlana. zatvoren. nos. kiss. finance. finance. Citroen. instalirati. instalirati Torrent. Plave. Mokrincana. državljanstva. državljanstva. pronašao.

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Svetlana arsic diskografija torrent

Опубликовано в Mpc tutorial books torrent | Октябрь 2nd, 2012

svetlana arsic diskografija torrent

These developments facilitated the rise of diskografija (recording industry) and estrada in Serbia Svetlana Ražnatović Ceca, and in Bosnia Dino Merlin. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs · torenttok.site (United States). Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.;. arsenovicev arsenovicin arseta arsic arsicev arsicin arsijena arsim arsin diskofilov diskograf diskografija diskografijin diskografov diskografski. SHUGO TOKUMARU IN FOCUS TPB TORRENTS Remember, once a packets that FortiWeb your upcoming stay get that top. On schedule, folks, be some issue leave behind some. Some applications only bit of research providing current information uses two versions of mail. It is actually the console tree. MySQL Workbench now.

Bogdanovic is especially interested in portrait photography and homoeroticism. A classically trained musician and self-taught painter, he took up digital photography after emigrating to Canada in Dragoslav S. Disintegration in frames: aesthetics and ideology in the Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav cinema Stanford University Press, Stanford, California , also called drekalo, krekavac, zdrekavac or zrikavac, is a mythical creature in South Slavic mythology.

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It started when a music segment of the runway fashion show More — Revija — Split Sea — Revue — Split separated in , becoming the Adriatic Melodies music festival. Unlike Opatija, the Split Festival gained approval from critics and the public alike. Like Opatija, Adriatic Melodies attracted an audience of locals and tourists to Croatia.

Rather it really starts from [Slovenian] Koper and ends at [Montenegrin] Ulcinj. With the development of domestic mass tourism in the late s, the Dalmatian zabavna idiom produced an idealized sound-image of the Adriatic that depicted real experiences and memories from holidays, as well as imaginary travel and summer fantasies.

In , the magazine Studio commented on earlier editions of the Festival: From the outset, the Split Festival has demonstrated that the interest in ancient Dalmatian song has not perished, [the songs] sing about our coast, ports and bays, about people who live and breathe our [Adriatic] sea, sharing all their joy and sorrow with irresistible charm and exuberant Mediterranean temper.

Even today they are sung on our Dalmatian streets. Singers also cultivated Mediterranean imagery through their appearance and performing characterization as well as their singing. By the mids, the Split Festival had become the most successful festival in Yugoslavia. The organizers had hoped to draw the attention of foreign media, looking toward a longterm investment in disseminating Yugoslav music on the international market Rolandi , The ambitious goal of generating international interest among mass media, especially among famous singers, was ultimately not realized.

Nevertheless, participation of major European artists in the Festival, including Spanish singer Betina, British bands the Shadows and the Lords, and Italian stars Domenico Modugno, Claudio Villa and Milva, did align Yugoslavia closer to the European world of high entertainment. Indeed, the quest for international recognition became even more apparent in , when Yugoslavia joined the Eurovision Song Contest ESC , the only socialist country to do so. Yugoslavia also paid attention to the cultural Cold War on the Eastern front.

By broadcasting the Festival program to Eastern European countries through their Intervision network the Eastern Bloc equivalent to the ESC , Yugoslavia demonstrated its ability to attract international singing stars based on the modernity of zabavna music and the overall image of a thriving socialist country. Figure 2. The breakup of Yugoslavia in the s, however, brought two different directions of the Mediterranean brand of pop music. Recent revivals, such as the television music-show Retromanija, by commercial Croatian television station RTL in , and the RetrOpatija festival in , show that Dalmatian pop is afforded a special meaning in the Yugonostalgic narratives, which continue to shape popular culture production across the successor states to the present day.

The festival hall in the Kvarner hotel accommodates about 1, people. Archives of Jugoslavia AJ. There were officially six different juries: the expert jury, the JRT jury, the audience in Opatija, and the awards from radio stations in Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana, based on the votes by radio listeners. The auditorium could accommodate about 1, visitors.

Marenda is a typical light meal in Southern Europe, eaten as a mid-morning brunch during a work break. In Yugoslavia, the term was used in coastal areas only. Traditional Dalmatian klapa song is a capella and homophonic, performed in groups of four to eight men who sing in three or four parts. Bibliography Anonymous. Accessed January 8, Cooper, David, and Kevin Dawe.

Gundle, Stephen. Durham: Duke University Press. Handl, Cino. Od internacionale do komercijale: Popularna kultura u Jugoslaviji, — Belgrade: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije. Kupusinac, Branislav. Belgrade: Mladost. Milano: Garzanti. Mediterranean: A Cultural Landscape. Berkeley: University of California Press. Accessed June 12, Plastino, Goffredo. New York: Routledge. Rolandi, Francesca. Bologna: Bononia University Press.

Zagreb: Hrvatski radio. RTV Zagreb — Prilozi za povijest radija i televizije u Hrvatskoj IV. Washington: New Academia Publishing. Zbornik radova s Festivali zabavne glazbe i sociokulturna lingvistika suvremene Hrvatske. Zbornik radova Zlatar, Pero. Jedan dan, Jugoton EPY , , 45 rpm. Jeka Jadrana. Jugoton EPY , , 45 rpm. Kesovija, Tereza. Put putujem. Jugoton CAY , , cassette. Jugoton EPY, , 45 rpm.

Jugoton LPY , , 45 rpm. Moreover, following the tumultuous Yugoslav Wars of the s, which were acutely played out on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the separation of Yugoslavia into seven successor states, the Sarajevo pop-rock scene serves as an indispensable source for younger generations learning about popular music culture in Yugoslavia.

For centuries, Sarajevo has been a melting pot of different religions, cultures, and traditions that had intermingled and left their marks on the city and its dwellers. Furthermore, during the socialist Yugoslavia Sarajevo remained on the outskirts of the political, economic and cultural power concentrated along the Ljubljana-Zagreb-Belgrade axis.

This atmosphere, with an amateur band rehearsing for igranke in a local community center dom kulture lit. On Sundays, we held gigs at the sports hall of the school [which] used to get really crowded. At that time there was only one man in Sarajevo who had an amplifier that he used to rent out, and since several igranke were held on Sundays, [the bands] who came first could use it while others had to wait.

There was no impatience, [not] a whistle; they were all simply fascinated by the fact that they could attend igranke. Among them, the most significant was the band Indexi Altarac , , who named themselves after the university grade logbook called indeks, following their enrollment at Sarajevo University in the summer of The main source of information for popular and rock music was Radio Luxembourg, which offered local bands access to the latest international hits, and an opportunity to learn this repertoire.

When the Shadows first appeared, we could only hear them on Radio Luxembourg — we did not know the notes, we did not have tape recorders, we only had good ears and were willing [to learn]. We split [our listening task] and each of us would remember one segment: for instance, I memorized the harmony, and Bodo and Fadil the solo parts. In the mids, Radio Sarajevo increasingly fostered rock music, both Western and local, but from the outset Esad objected to the copy-cat approach to Western music by local bands.

Sit down and write your own songs. Compared to pop, rock music remained indebted to foreign models until later on, although the global Beatlemania had ramifications on the local rock scene. We worshiped the Shadows, but as soon as we heard the Beatles, we immediately started to learn their [songs], making prepjevi [covers]. Alongside their musical leanings toward experimental forms and expanded harmonic language, Indexi maintained an equally successful festival career.

Drummers and the keyboardists had similar experiences. Even while I was a piano student, the Beatles and the Stones. I had both the piano technique acquired at the Music Academy, and years of rock music experience. But Indexi had high demands, and there had to be great effort to meet those [demands]. I learned a huge deal about music with Indexi — they really were a school.

Jurin, pers. The cycle of poetry set to music in Modra rijeka grounded Indexi firmly in the prog-rock idiom, which won them the best record title in based on the votes of many music critics, and the Sixth of April Award of the city of Sarajevo. It was a great pleasure for me to work on the Modra rijeka arrangements, where I could do everything I was capable of, everything I wanted. Rihtman, pers.

He recalled: At the time, the people at the Radio did not give in. The understanding was that all the classical music within the [Yugoslav] state would be produced in Ljubljana, all zabavna-pop in Zagreb, and all folk narodna in Belgrade. Dervoz, pers. Borota also formed the pop band Kamen na kamen, which featured Ukraden in a series of hits from their album Srce u srcu Heart in a Heart. She accompanied herself on the guitar and harmonica, carving out a place alongside other artists inspired by Dylan, such as the Slovenian Ivica Percl and Croatian Drago Mlinarec.

Back in Sarajevo he reevaluated the Italian experience and joined the group Jutro. This marked the beginning of the most successful career in domestic rock history. They set standards in the entertainment industry and continuously pushed them forward. This was a time of high [political] temperature. Because, even though I wrote better music afterwards.

Left to right. These two albums became a sort of joint anthology of the New Primitive songs, and still remain highly popular today. These were the subjects with which we felt more confident, we had the courage to talk about them with authority. We stuck to small themes honestly and we never expected them to be of interest to some large Yugoslavia, and especially the picky Belgrade and Zagreb, which, with the exception of Bijelo dugme, were an unconquerable fortress for musicians from Sarajevo at that time.

New Sarajevo [music] names started popping like popcorn and god knows where it would have all ended if the war did not start. Plavi orkestar created by high school students from the First Gimnazija was the most popular teenage band to emerge in Yugoslavia in the mids.

Within a short period of time, he assembled a group and recorded a debut album, Kokuzna vremena Penniless Times Musically, he proved himself the master of Balkan pop with his easily memorable refrains, set to melodies mostly in minor keys and colored by recognizable sevdah love, yearning, melancholy sentiments. Although his narrative range comprises an appealing combination of love themes romance, his city , his musical aesthetics exhibit the New Partisan values of Yugoslavism, delivered in the classic rock mode.

Nowadays Dino Merlin is the most sought-after and best-paid star within the territory of former Yugoslavia. The War and After Almost thirty years after the siege and destruction of Sarajevo —95 , political ramifications continue to reverberate in the social and cultural life of this capital city, now in the sovereign country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Under the auspices of the independent urban Radio Zid Radio Wall , the Rock Under the Siege scene emerged, with many garage bands, among them the refined alternative electro-rock band Sikter, still active today.

Other bands fled Sarajevo, for instance Plavi orkestar, who continued their career in Ljubljana, and Crvena jabuka in Croatia. And although the three members of Indexi have passed away, their music lives on too, through tribute concerts by other popular performers. Combining dub, ska, hip-hop, punk, and rock music with references to Bosnian folklore and sharp social critique, they represent a new generation of political activists who resist nationalist divisions.

Dubioza has garnered a significant following throughout Yugoslavia, partly by providing free downloads of their music. Their popularity reclaims the story of Sarajevo Pop-Rock School, placing it symbolically, and perhaps substantively, at a post-Yugoslavian crossroads. Beard Notes 1. Gimnazija stands for academic college preparatory high school, as opposed to vocational high school. In the area of popular music, there were important differences: New Primitives attended the Second Gimnazija, while trendy kids who preferred new wave went to the First Gimazija.

Unless otherwise stated, all interviews were undertaken by the author. London and New York: Continuum. Sarajevo: Media Centar. Accessed November 28, Sarajevo: Quattro Media. Ex-Yu Rock Enciklopedija — Afterword to Indexi — U inat godinama. Boje zvuka. Belgrade: Color print. Discography Bijelo dugme. Bijelo dugme. Bitanga i princeza. Crvena jabuka. Dubioza kolektiv. Menart , , compact disk. Edo Majka. No sikiriki.

Fmjam Records , , compact disk. Elvis J. Mitovi i legende o kralju Elvisu. VIS Jutro. Modra rijeka. Kokuzna vremena. Plavi orkestar. Soldatski bal. Now, Always, Never. Das Ist Walter. Filmography Kusturica, Emir, dir. He was an accomplished composer, singersongwriter, poet, and painter, and his interest in different arts imbued his music with a distinctly lyrical and intimate style. He was praised for skillfully matching the simplicity of his texts and music, but his lyrics also provided sharp social commentary on Yugoslav politics, society, people, and religion — a topic largely censored in public life under the officially atheist Yugoslav regime.

He often sang about the ordinary person and wrote about his own perception of the world around him. During his long career, he continued to publish, compose and perform, attracting the recognition of the regional cultural elites, including pop culture critics and audiences with diverse backgrounds.

There he joined a group of young intellectuals who closely followed artistic events in Yugoslavia, and particularly abroad. Schlager , whose simple verses and easy-listening melodies were instantly popular among the broadest zabavna music audiences. They immersed themselves in foreign films, music, and literature and listened to foreign radio stations, including the most popular Radio Luxembourg, learning about the Italian canzone and the French chanson. The s were also the decade of Yugoslav auteur cinema, influenced by French New Wave, American film noir and Italian neorealism.

For the film industry this meant that film production was no longer financed only by the state, and instead film studios were encouraged to manage their own funding. The film themes included a series of flashbacks and visual archetypes reminiscent of a dream, and Mimica approached sound and music in a similarly unstructured fashion.

He also used prerecorded music, including environmental sounds street sounds, typewriter, and industrial noise , which reinforced the visual and aural disorientation in his film. The scene is long and interrupted with interpolations of other sequences that act as flashbacks or recollections e. Rajka ultimately never arrives, nor does Sandra from the song ever appear in the movie. Since there was no other music in the film, both songs critically highlight the scenes for which they were commissioned.

In the early seventies, the idealization of the Partisan movement was still an ideological norm, and any questioning of this norm was seen as politically unacceptable. This is the first time we see her without friends, not chatting or commenting on something, and her loneliness is reinforced by the music. He also repeats the verses when delivering an important message. The atmosphere is further evoked by the piano accompaniment, which shifts from playful and elaborate rhythmic sections to a mounting sense of drama, before receding back into the more tranquil passages.

He clearly perceived them as art. Still, he was very much aware of the surrounding reality, and although he tried to turn his back on politics, he was prompted to make his opinions public. In some instances, his songs function like Brechtian plays, allowing the audience to experience the film from another perspective. The stylistic thumbprint of the chanson-inspired aesthetic to which he was devoted is recognizable across his oeuvre for screen and stage.

The song won first prize at the Zagreb Festival of Zabavna Music in In the s Vrdoljak became a prominent member of the nationalist political party HDZ the Croatian Democratic Union , which led to his high-profile appointments as the director general of the Croatian Radio Television and the president of the Croatian Olympic Committee. Brod u boci. Zagreb: Znanje. Kino Sloboda. Glazba s ekrana. Hrvatska filmska glazba od Paulus, Irena. Zagreb: DAF. Polimac, Nenad.

Accessed March 24, Introduction to Kino Sloboda. Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Globus. Udier, Sanda Lucija, ed. Hrvatska na prvi pogled. Zagreb: Ff Press. Homo Volans. Otisak autora. Pjevam pjesnike. Kino sloboda. Muzika za film i TV. Tihi obrt. Ministarstvo straha. Koncept VD , , compact disc. Cantus 2, , compact disc. Croatia Records CD , , compact disc. Na zlu putu. Gabi i Arsen. Mimica, Vatroslav, dir.

Ponedjeljak ili utorak. Jadran film, Kad golubovi polete. Vrdoljak, Antun, dir. Zagreb: HRT1. Documentary series in seven episodes. Like radio and television broadcasters, record labels were considered institutions of particular social importance, but unlike broadcasters, they were not subsidized by the state and therefore were economically self-sustainable.

To varying degrees, all authors argue for the oppositional dynamic of Yugoslav rock, invoking tropes of autonomy, subversion, negotiation, and conformity. They offer complementary analyses of rock as social and artistic practice from their respective regional perspectives, never losing sight of the broader East-West cultural dichotomy that frames any story of rock under socialism.

The chapters in this part map the varied worlds of Yugoslav rock scenes, foregrounding significant moments and key issues regarding the shared rock music culture of predominantly urban youth. Schlager and Italian hits produced at the Sanremo Festival. Alongside nascent zabavnapop music, a much smaller and exclusive jazz scene thrived in Belgrade, organized around Big Band music played by smaller jazz ensembles for dance events.

The formally neutral political position within the Non-Aligned block accommodated a more relaxed attitude toward both the United States and the United Kingdom, which ensured that certain Western musical influences were not only permitted but steadily encouraged. The Sixties: The Age of Innocence In Yugoslavia, the interest in rock music was manifest early, accompanied by a strong desire to participate in, and eventually contribute to, global rock culture.

As the conventional narratives on non Anglo-American rock go, they first fantasized, then imitated, and finally created the original music on their own. If the song was good, and you sung it well, the entire city demanded to hear it again and again. The s were an era marked by the expansion of minds as well as the activism of the postWWII baby boomers in many parts of the world. It was the time when the demands for greater individual freedoms tore down the social norms and cultural constraints of the previous age.

Unlike the rest of communist Europe, Yugoslavs had relatively open access to information from the West, aided by the policy of free travel and engagement in Western cultural practices without government reprisals. The first band to acquire a complete set of instruments and the equipment showcased in a live performance was Iskre. Their show at the Fifth Gymnasium resembled a miracle: it was perhaps the most important gig of the day when it comes to the technical side of things.

All the bands were there to see the real instruments for the first time. There is no way to describe the feeling! If in the West rock was a form of revolt against a culturally conservative capitalist order, in Yugoslavia it was an intuitive rebellion against the ideological concept of culture. By contrast, the growing rock culture, which essentially belonged to urban youth, placed an emphasis on city life and individualism, largely ignoring the gloomy realities of rural migrations and adjustments to modernity.

No one could predict that, just a few years later, forty or more bands would play at the now legendary Gitarijada2 festivals with four stages, attended by tens of thousands of young people. Moreover, those who were in a position to acquire new products — be it records, magazines, instruments, or equipment — were eager to share them, which created new forms of communication and distinct communities in Belgrade, and elsewhere across Yugoslavia. The institution of Klub diskofila The Discophile Club was the most effective: since few people owned records and even fewer owned record players, such clubs became the prime places for young people to get Figure 5.

The Music Press and Media Since there was no reliable way to find information about recent releases in Western markets, principally from England, the information came randomly, through magazines, records brought from abroad, and most importantly through Radio Luxembourg. We wanted to put the Beatles on the cover of the second issue, but I realized that something had to be done quickly, so I jumped in with a story that there are other interesting things, there are nice, decent guys who also can sing well, such as Adamo a famous Belgian [singer] back then , so we could put him on the cover.

Nothing would have been possible without a dash of diplomacy, and it was very important [for us] to be aware of that at the time. I was a guest of Andy Gray,3 and the winners were seated in the front row as guests of honor. It was an important event and I got to meet Dusty Springfield, Lulu and many others. I spent most of the concert back stage, where Andy kindly introduced me to some of the biggest stars of the times. The magazine continued under the same name, but with completely different staff until , when it ceased publication.

They presented their project for a youth music show and we agreed on the title Koncert za ludi mladi svet A Concert For Crazy Young People. We did the actual shooting in December [], and the show premiered in January In that initial episode. I was not a television director, and that might have been my greatest advantage at the moment, as I knew exactly what I wanted to say [which is that] music was played, literally, everywhere.

On a locomotive, on a carousel, on a roof, in a basement, in a park. At the very beginning, we only wanted to go against those three principles [we were taught at the Drama Faculty: the unity of time, action and space]. Everything else was intuitive and came from musicians hanging out together.

By the late s and early s, rock music in Belgrade grew into a more complex network of musical, institutional, and commercial interests. Its debut album Kiselina Acid , which echoed the global rock sound of the time, was followed by two more albums, Na izvoru svetlosti At the Source of Light, and the gem live recording, Put ka suncu A Path Towards the Sun, Another important band of the s was the acoustic quartet S vremena na vreme, which showcased an innovative rock approach to local folk music.

Playing together, mostly informally since , three years later they released a self-titled debut album, which showcased smooth harmonies and poetic lyrics, and proved to be one the most sophisticated records of the s. The s: The Belgrade Wave If the s was the age of sincerity and rebellious passion, and if the s brought rock and the establishment closer together by creating the mainstream, then s punk and new wave reasserted the subversive rock core onto the scene.

The insolence of the Sex Pistols, the primal punch of the Ramones, and the rumble of the Clash may have sparked the action, but Yugoslav musicians sought their own creative response. The s was also a decade that witnessed a decline in the cult of personalities and artificial social tranquility. Although uninterested in explicit political activism, they were keen to be on the frontline of musical activism.

The fact that those bands first appeared on a compilation album showed that Jugoton, as the leading rock-pop label, was nonetheless cautious whether the project would take off. In these few songs, their tendencies are very similar.

A valuable compilation of many new wave activities, including a Yugoslavian new wave discography, focused on music but also showcased other forms of art and publishing, from comics and graffiti to fashion and fanzines. It showed that both the pop culture and political establishment interests intersected in capturing the punk and new wave and the changes they espoused.

A Man is Smarter or Dumber When. The album reflected a more sophisticated treatment of rock as an ideological statement: it referenced the controversial associations with religion and the figure of Tito himself, thus creating a stir even before the album was released. Belgrade rock musicians faced an onslaught of commercial pop-folk music called turbo-folk see Gordy , heavily promoted by media enmeshed with the ruling nationalist government of the s.

Today a new generation of artists e. Most Belgrade bands started their careers as social outcasts who would have to work up a sweat to gain recognition as important carriers of youth culture. The NME editor from to Bibliography Albahari, David, ed. YU Najbolji albumi jugoslovenske rok i pop muzike. Belgrade: Yu Rock Express. Bohn, Chris. Booker, Christopher. London: Gambit Incorporated. Gordy, Eric D. Long, Pat. London: Portico Books.

Zvuci vremena. Belgrade: Author. The Golden Boys. VIS Idoli. Odbrana i poslednji dani. Diskos, EDK , , 45 rpm. Na izvoru svetlosti. Put ka suncu Live. S vremena na vreme. Turning to the artistic documents of the new wave, I briefly discuss innovations in album designs, and then provide my own list of the most influential new wave albums produced by Jugoton and several other leading labels.

The perspectives presented here reflect my involvement in the burgeoning punk and new wave scenes from the late s through the s, as publicist, multimedia professional, musician, and chronicler of the extraordinary times in domestic pop culture, but above all, as a fan of the music. The Jugoton Factor The Zagreb-based record label Jugoton now Croatia Records , which by the s had grown from a small state firm established in to the largest East European label outside the USSR, effectively charts the development of pop music in socialist Yugoslavia.

The second phase c. The same year, Jugoton also signed a contract with the American company RCA and soon after made licensing agreements with the Italian labels Italdisco, Sabrina, and Durium. As Vuletic notes Ibid. Between and , Yugoslavs enjoyed higher standards of living and consumerism increased along with the demands for entertainment and pop culture merchandise.

In the area of publishing, the newspapers Studentski list and Polet were particularly influential in youth cultures both in Zagreb and other major cities, while the short-lived and visually attractive Pop Express —70 was a mix of music magazine and underground press.

During the late s, however, new poprock bands like Plavi orkestar and Crvena jabuka arrived on the scene and captured the next generation of fans, amid the political crisis, economic troubles, and growing anxiety about impending war. By the turn of the decade, the Yugoslav market all but disappeared, and in Jugoton became a public corporation Hrvatska naklada zvuka i slike, HNZS , or Croatia Records — the largest record company in the newly independent state of Croatia.

Along with local radio and youth press, and the smaller labels Suzy and Helidon, Jugoton was the crucial logistical institution that embraced new wave artists and ushered them into the mainstream. In Yugoslavia, the new wave was a small-scale youth revolution Kostelnik , whose seeds, as elsewhere, were planted in the late s.

Even external observers found the scene remarkable. Accordingly, the communist youth organization toned down their criticism of outspoken rockers. The event not only signaled that the establishment no longer opposed politically outspoken musicians, but that the youth organizations indirectly contributed to the development of the new wave culture. The New Wave Artistry Until new wave, rock album covers typically featured simple and unimaginative photographs of band members, but new wave designers approached cover design as an important element in communicating artistic meaning.

The title Everybody Dance Now! It featured bright red lips and a protruding tongue sliced in three parts, with the upper right lip pierced by a safety pin — an obvious allusion to the Rolling Stones tongue logo Figure 6. Figure 6. Of course, the spirit of the time was important — no one works in a vacuum. Gregor Tomc, the leader and manager of Slovenian punk band Panktri, was certain that after a few gigs and the initial impact, the band would be suppressed Kostelnik , We wanted to add some deeper social message to the spontaneity of punk [a kind of] alter-art rock.

The album was to have some connecting text [and] I wrote some Stalinist-like speech that was supposed to be read between the songs. See for yourself how foolish you are. The idea for the cover came at the very end. We decided on a picture of a young man at the cemetery. I was quite young, and to reduce the expenses, that man turned out to be me. We went to the cemetery looking for a motif. We came to the statue of the soldier from WWI, and liked him from the start.

I also asked about the reactions of the label and the editor. There were lots of negotiations about this album song lyrics, connecting narrative, the title , so we kind of got bored. The negotiations were friendly, but it was clear who the boss was. As I recall, regarding the cover photo, there was only one question: why is this soldier in the photo? We knew very well that all authorial rights were in the hands of the Party.

This all just illustrates how well self-censorship worked within the band. It is not by coincidence that we survived ten years of socialism without major injuries. The fifteen albums, nine of which were produced by Jugoton, are listed by the bands in alphabetical order. Jugoton, Zagreb Helidon, Ljubljana Their debut album received fine reviews even in the few select English-language rock publications, including the New Musical Express — a rare feat indeed.

Film, Novo! This album celebrates urban life. One of the most important debut albums of the new wave generation transports the listener to the wild and magical world of music and spirituality that is the realm of five strong individuals who recorded as Katarina II later renamed Ekaterina Velika. The band Haustor led by Darko Rundek vocals emerged from jam sessions at parties thrown by the informal group Komuna, which were social events where copious amounts of wine and marijuana were consumed at cabins on the foothills of Medvednica mountain north of Zagreb and in the Zagorje region.

This album is a strange and inviting mix of global and local themes with warm reggae and Latino rhythms, pop refrains, cool brass and fascinating lyrics. This was a banned album by a banned band with a banned name. The album was released on an independent Slovenian label run by a statefounded student organization.

This debut album by the pioneers of punk in the Balkans paved the way for the second and third generations of Slovenian punks and Yugoslav rockers, including the radical Laibach. Partibrejkers, Partibrejkers Party-breakers. Partibrejkers arrived somewhat later on the Yugoslav new wave scene, and were one of the few major bands to sustain rock culture sanity across the disintegrating country. Their mids album resonated widely with the public. Suzy, Zagreb This was best illustrated with their follow-up album Crno bijeli svijet Black and White World, , which solidified their pop rock standing.

A Man is Wiser or Dumber When. Musically, this is a finely executed example of the Serbian punk idiom, with occasional respites of ska and easy listening. A masterpiece of conceptual art pop, this album skyrocketed Idoli to the top of the pop rock scene.

The album was controversial because of its religious and potentially nationalistic references, ruffling feathers in domestic media and semi-political circles, but one thing is certain: it remains a courageous and authentic work of pop music art. Assessing the New Wave Commercial Success In contrast to short-lived punk, new wave in Yugoslavia enjoyed exceptional commercial success, shattering one of the most important unwritten rules of the domestic rock scene that reaching a wider audience was only possible through an artistic mutation from rock to neo-folk pop music Glavan , In addition to rock music, new ideas resonated in fine and performance arts, photography, journalism and literature.

Urban centers like Zagreb, Belgrade, Ljubljana, Sarajevo, Rijeka, and other smaller cities spawned talented new artists, giving them and their fans a participatory platform. This networking of worldview and lifestyle in the early s engendered ideas of individual, sexual and identity freedoms. In short, the Yugoslav new wave scene of the s echoed many of the values synonymous with the youth movements of the s, except that the hippie vibe gave way to the sleeker s cool.

Simply put, there was not enough foreign currency at the beginning of the crisis in the former Yugoslavia to pay foreign labels for copyrights, so they shifted focus onto releases from the domestic scene. My own experience attests to this.

I waited for seven years for the release of the debut album of my band Roderick, only to see it issued in a small run by an independent label, just before the war broke out. Of particular value are the interviews and testimonials of many insiders and associates of Jugoton published in the book. Importantly, it was not just a symbolic retrospective.

It is no overstatement to say that the happy marriage between Jugoton and the new wave actors, aided by a favorable cultural climate, produced a great catalogue of songs and albums. This music is the testament of the s generation, and it can stand, along with the Zagreb School of Animated Film and the Musical Biennale, among the greatest artistic achievements of twentieth-century Croatia and Yugoslavia.

Acknowledgments I wish to thank Ljerka V. Beard for their valued editorial input, especially their assistance with musical analysis. Zagreb: Kultura umjetnosti. Hrvatski punk i novi val — Brlek, Tomislav. Novi val i filozofija. Zagreb: Naklada Jesenski and Turk. Galjer, Jasna. Ilustrovana YU rock enciklopedija — Kostelnik, Branko. Zagreb: Fraktura. Kremer, Dragan. Zagreb: Profil and AGM. New York: Print Media. Sretno dijete.

Mala enciklopedija pop i rock glazbe. Rijeka: Nema problema. Zagreb: Croatia records d. Tomc, Gregor. Neue Slowenische Kunst. Discography Azra. Zabranjeno plakatirati. Katarina II. Adijo pamet. Lisac, Josipa. Dnevnik jedne ljubavi. Mlinarec, Drago, and Grupa Das ist Walter. It is a music genre based on a four-on-the-floor beat pattern; it is a dance space designed specifically around the playback of recorded music; and it is the practice of freestyle dancing developed in that space Lawrence , This chapter looks at the remarkable yet unexplored disco culture that thrived in Yugoslavia from the second half of the s until the early s.

I will first trace Yugoslav disco as a Western pop import and then examine various practices of its appropriation within diverse musical and cultural milieus that gave rise to its indigenous Yugoslav form. I approach Yugoslav disco as a dynamic cultural phenomenon, both as a pop music niche with constituent stylistic and visual codes, and as a cultural practice.

The Mistreatment of Socialist Disco Disco is absent from accounts on Yugoslav popular music for two primary reasons. The first relates to the rise of Yugoslav punk and new wave in the late s. New wave, which is commonly regarded as a peak in the Yugoslav pop-rock market, combined social critique with innovative artistry, synchronizing domestic rock music with Western trends Glavan , Local rock critics tended to mythologize the new wave, viewing it as an updated, reformulated continuation of the s political activism and disillusioned youth subculture.

But while new wave spurred research into homegrown rock, it tended to marginalize other aspects of local pop-rock scenes, some of which were subsumed under the new wave umbrella term. The second reason relates to the more general disregard for disco. Since it emerged in the early s, in the multiethnic gay dance clubs of urban America, disco has received limited scholarly attention in comparison to other musical genres.

Hence cultural commentators perpetuated the image of disco as an exploitative pop industry product, devoid of artistic ambition or subversive meaning. When this form of mainstream disco emerged in Yugoslavia in the late s, it mesmerized audiences. The hedonistic and consumerist aspects of disco negated the egalitarian socialist ethos, yet disco was swiftly embraced and domesticated in Yugoslavia.

In other words, disco was both a reflection and a product of the continued Westernization, ideological transformation, and major economic, social, and political reforms that shaped socialist Yugoslavia. The split with the Soviet Union led to a considerably greater exposure to the West, compared with the rest of Eastern Europe.

The confederal state framework, on the other hand, triggered a decentralization that fragmented cultural production, making it more difficult to control. These processes helped produce an extraordinarily rich domestic popular culture, reinforced by the early influx of free market elements within the planned economy.

Within the array of local media outlets, which operated through the centralized media networks and catered to popular interests, disco proved an unlikely favorite. A variety of media narratives, from serious newspaper articles to radio and television shows, chronicled local disco culture and constitute a major source for this chapter.

The New Sound When disco reached Europe, local record labels were ready to exploit it, releasing a number of disco compilations for example, Disko Hitovi 1, By the early s, their catalogues included a variety of licensed dance-oriented artists, covering the entire subgenre spectrum, from the early Philadelphia sound Philly Sound, to electronic space disco Magic Fly, Along with record companies, radio was an important source of dissemination, and radio disc jockeys were not limited to records produced at home, but could promote the repertoire from abroad, and the increasing number of radio entertainment programs now broadcast a greater variety of global dance hits.

By the mids, international disco stars came to Yugoslavia to perform live. However, a European disco act that made the greatest impact was the German-based sensation Boney M, who first performed in Zagreb for the popular entertainment show Svjetla pozornice Stage Lights in Somewhat earlier, another media favorite, alleged transgender disco queen Amanda Lear, held two concerts in Zagreb and Split, performing in concert halls normally reserved for classical music Vrdoljak , By this time, disco had left its mark on the Yugoslav music scene.

Besides only a few true disco albums, there are a number of crossover tunes and individual disco tracks scattered on non-disco albums or B-sides of singles. Yugoslav disco united various and often unrelated musical streams and artists from diverse backgrounds. As such, it cut across established musical categories zabavnapop, rock, folk, even jazz , evading stylistic definition.

The following are illustrative examples. Other disco inroads came from the world of jazz. At the height of its popularity, disco also permeated the estrada. The vocal trio Mirzino jato, who were Boney M wannabes from Sarajevo, had the most successful disco career in Yugoslavia. As the disco beat pervaded all musical spheres, it strongly influenced later trends, including s synth-pop. In the end, however, only a few disco tracks survived the test of time.

Yugoslav disco versions failed to compete with foreign models, leaving the public and DJs unimpressed. Rock critics, never receptive to disco, demonized it for poor quality. Glossy magazines used this recognizable code with a heavy dose of colorful glitter Duga , 1 , mirroring popular television shows which featured performers who danced in tinselled studios dressed in shiny overalls under flashy light effects e.

The glitziness tapped into the established visual expression of estrada and gradually spread to other musical forms and non-musical realms of design. Whereas in the West such fashion choices might be dismissed as kitsch, in Yugoslavia they revealed deep consumerist desires. Sex was, simply, available: tantalizing and exciting, and ready for visual and physical consumption through images and movements.

Choreographer Vesna Mimica released audio-tapes with instructions on how to do aerobic workouts to disco soundtracks Yu Aerobic br. But disco was all about being seen in public. Her rise to stardom, however, coincided with the start of the disco era in the mids, with a group of dancers named after her, Lokice.

Their success led entertainers to introduce dance entourages as a regular complement to live and televised performances. Reports from the principal zabavna music festival in Opatija in commented on the sudden rush of female dance troupes that accompanied singers on stage Studio b, Unlike Lokice, groups like Avone or DC were typically presided over by male managers, keen to monopolize the new fad Start , 48— Screenings of Saturday Night Fever and the many disco-flicks that followed created a broader context for disco culture, aligning music with new patterns of behavior.

Though Yugoslav cinematography never produced its own disco feature, a number of film directors used disco scenes to highlight social issues such as the urban-rural divide, gray economy, and mounting inequalities. Discomania seeds were planted with the first Yugoslav discotheques, which appeared as early as the late s. For every youth club open to all, there was a venue that prided itself on exclusivity with pricey entrance fees and dress codes. Indeed, local discotheques provided an ideal setting for the emerging affluent strata to exhibit their improved life standards.

In reality, midtown Manhattan was thousands of miles away: licenses were sometimes obtained through dubious means and sophisticated equipment from abroad was acquired outside legal channels. This period also witnessed the rise of specialized disc jockeys. On the whole, however, club disc jockeys were defined by their specific working venues rather than their playlists, combining their roles as bodyguards, talk hosts, and DIY engineers who modified their equipment to create the required technical standards Zubak , — Their eclectic mixes were divided into different sets that cut across different genres.

The inclusive repertoires reflected the diversity of Yugoslav youth in the late s: even if they preferred different types of music, clubbers were typically a diverse bunch who inhabited the shared social space, largely unfamiliar with the bifurcated social worlds of their Western peers.

Moreover, disco offered unprecedented visibility to marginal social groups by generating a series of popular dance competitions. He was not a finalist, but he qualified for several other international competitions. His remarkable story illustrates the close link between disco culture and the urban proletariat, which identified with dance venues rather than new wave.

Roma in particular frequented places that featured varied forms of dance music, and as regular contestants of disco competitions, they came to dominate the podiums at dance clubs throughout the s. They rummage through flea markets, digging through used vinyl records in search of great, forgotten tracks that have slipped under the radar, but could now be used for samples.

With the rise of online music platforms, their findings have reached wider audiences and broken established categorizations created by historical gatekeepers. Disco emerged at a time when the consumption gap between East and West was increasingly closing in the late s, and served as a prime manifestation of the explosion of market socialism. Yugoslav disco both revealed and partook in ideological and cultural relaxation, greater cross-border travel, and private entrepreneurship.

Though mainstream media remained fascinated with disco, rock critics viewed it as antithetical to punk and new wave subcultures. Its eclectic style and design, target audiences, and ambiguous cultural status all elude simplistic Cold War binaries insensitive to complex everyday realities.

With funk pioneers and estrada emulators, gender transgressors and male chauvinists, affluent clubbers and Roma dancers, mainstream promoters and hostile critics, disco resists the polarizing definitions of conformist or progressive, official or subcultural, repression or dissent.

Operating within the gray zones, disco highlights the inadequacy of the dated binary matrix typically used for the interpretation of popular culture under socialism. The case of socialist disco was not limited to Yugoslavia. Disco fever crossed the Iron Curtain with ease and acquired different meanings across the Eastern Bloc.

Acknowledgments A number of musicians, disc jockeys, dancers, and film directors kindly shared their experiences and testimonies with me, and they are at the heart of this text. Duga , October Rijeka: Kud Baklje. Dyer, Richard. Figenwald, Predrag.

Hammer, Ferenc. Mezei, Stevan. Belgrade: Savremena administracija. Lawrence, Tim. Urbana plemena: Sociologija subkultura u Hrvatskoj. Kad je rock bio mlad. Thornton, Sarah. London: Polity Press. Zubak, Marko. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Socialist Disco Culture. Discography Arian. Jugoton SY , , 45rpm.

KIM Band. Sexy Dama. Mimica, Vesna. Yu Aerobic br. Mirzino Jato. Pepel in kri. Savin, Igor i orkestar Stanka Selaka. Yu Disco Express. Magic Fly. Jugoton SV , , 45rpm. Summer, Donna. Bad Girls. Ukraden, Neda. Disko Hitovi 1. Originalna muzika iz filma Nacionalna klasa. Filmography Crnobrnja, Stanko, dir. RTV Beograd. TV program. Nacionalna klasa do cm. Centar film, Sedam plus sedam RTV Beograd, TV series.

Filmed in black and white, the show is widely regarded as the flagship rock TV show in Yugoslav pop music history, and featured bands from across the country. At that time, Yugoslavia had a single television channel that broadcast up to eight hours of TV programs every day. All viewers watched whatever was broadcast at any given time, and the majority of performers who appeared on the screen were guaranteed instant popularity.

Moreover, she emphasizes that the rapid expansion and massive diffusion of television since the s was a consequence of steady political relaxation, economic reforms, and shortening of the working hours Ibid. On a locomotive, on a carousel, on a roof, in a basement, in a park, everywhere;. Within a few years, the Koncert penetrated most layers of Yugoslav society due to its innovative programming. Along with popular radio and TV shows, early forms of music videos also emerged through other platforms.

Importantly, TV specials featuring nationally popular artists were often produced to coincide with releases of their new albums. The challenge for rock music promoters, however, was to break away from the specialized TV shows such as Koncert.

A new show called Maksimetar, started in , was important in this regard, because it featured a mix of musical styles in the form of top-of the-charts songs. Individual musical numbers functioned as freestanding music videos that could be extracted for other purposes, mainly due to innovative camera techniques such as blending, zooming, and wide and close-up frames.

In the s, prime-time popular TV shows, such as Hit meseca TV Belgrade and Stereovizija TV Zagreb , gradually introduced music videos proper, and turned them into mainstream promotional outlets of pop songs and visual art. Nonetheless, as argued by Robyn Stilwell, even when women in rock achieve notable careers, they are often excluded from rock histories and mythologies Stilwell , Vocally, Lisac was already a powerhouse, but visually she appeared demure, far from her latter-day eccentric image.

She was clearly visually attractive for the producers, although this separation also reflects a common practice in music videos where lead singers had greater exposure. The songs and the videos proved an overnight success, launching her career in the s, first through zabavna festivals and TV shows, which reflect her transformation from a reticent to more assertive solo act. The album introduced a highly original fusion of rock, pop, and jazz: it was the first full-length album by a female singer, and one of the earliest concept albums in Yugoslav rock, conceived as a diary of a woman who falls in love with a man, who then betrays and leaves her before eventually returning.

As a jazz pop-rock singer, with a bold stage presence and commanding vocal abilities, her excursion into the venerated folk music genre further solidified her unique position in Yugoslav pop culture. Even today, in her late sixties, Lisac maintains her striking visual style and continues to perform; and while the new generation of millennial fans may regard her eccentric image as whimsical, she has long secured her status as a Croatian and Yugoslav pop-cultural treasure.

Although most members of EKV were active on the Belgrade rock scene since the late s, they started out as an alternative art-rock band that gradually gained mainstream popularity.

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