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In a law similar to the Dutch Article bis was introduced and remained in force for twenty years. Bender, Verderfelijke propaganda Pernicious Propaganda , brochure from , p. After the war, Schorer was a follower of the principles of the American Christian Science church. This quote comes from the Foreword, p. Koenders reports with regard to Stijkel that he was captured in due to betrayal and was executed two years later in Berlin.

The s formed perhaps the most crucial decade in the recent history of sexual diversity in the Netherlands. At the start of the 70s a two-decade struggle was rewarded with the abolishment of what had been seen as the most discriminating definition of the Dutch penal law system: article bis of the Penal Code. This forbade same-sex sexual contact between persons over 21 years old with persons between sixteen and 21 years old.

With the abolishment of this article, heterosexuals and homosexuals would henceforth be treated equally in the eyes of the law. In the special interest group COC finally received royal assent. This had been held back for years by the government because the COC had published personal ads from married persons who were looking for same-sex contacts and this was seen as debauchery.

The urgency duly disappears at the beginning of the 70s with regard to the legal discrimination of homosexuals. In it seemed that there were no more issues lurking with regard to homosexuality. Soon however, it appeared that this was not so: in June the Pink Saturday demonstra- tion in Amersfoort dissolved into a riot.

The police were present but just looked on. Everyone was shocked. And in there was talk for the first time about a secret illness, an illness that primarily seemed to attack gay men and was therefore initially called GRID Gay Related Immune Deficiency. All of a sudden there were two strong, new urgent challenges. As I was an active participant during most of this period, the historical thread is, above all, my own narrative of the past.

How subjective such a history is, is dem- onstrated by the website of the Gay Krant, a popular Dutch gay newspaper. On its website a historical overview of the past 25 years i. Despite the fact that I myself have been an extremely active 23 lesbian activist during this period, I was not only not represented in the overview, but none of the developments that I myself find of crucial importance received attention.

Continuity and Renewal The gay movement in the Netherlands maintained a great measure of continuity between and The gay movement became more inter- ested in politics 4 and remained so in subsequent decades. They paved the way for the new politics in their brochure, Afscheid van een moederbinding Farewell to a Mother Fixation. The twenty years following were devoted to obtaining lawful protection against dis- crimination.

That those rights were not won was demonstrated by the long history tied up with the design of the Wet Gelijke Behandeling Equal Treatment Act. In when the proposed design was presented, it led to immediate reactions which made it obvious that on the theme of equality, homosexuals and christians stood fiercely on opposing sides of the fence.

The contrast between conservative, predominantly religiously inspired people, and the supporters of a system wherein freedom and self-determination played an important role, was a second continual thread running between and today, even though the players and the lines of approach have changed in the course of time. The two current laws on which the protection of homosexuals in the Netherlands is based i.

The single fact that somebody is gay or lesbian is not enough for the candidate to be rejected at a job interview. This was particularly important as some religiously-based schools wanted the freedom not to employ homosexuals. It now seems that the exceptional position for special education is against European directives. The European Commission might start an infringement proce- dure against the Netherlands.

In , article 1 of the constitution was altered to include an anti-discrimination paragraph wherein homosexuality was only implicitly cited. The demand to add an explicit reference to sexual preference is still an urgent political issue. The agenda of the Dutch gay movement followed a pattern similar to most other gay lib- eration movements. Once this is achieved one generally finds an increasing diversification of the agenda, similar to what has taken place in the Nether- lands.

Within the gay movement, more and more factions appeared covering all manner of different aspects, from gay studies and the scholarly quarterly Homologie on the one hand, to the Rode Flikkers Red Queers and the Warm Lesbian Front on the other. The COC board must continually struggle to avoid a split within the organisation, with varying success.

On the board of COC directors, humanistic values are strongly represented. Homosexuality, as such, is not up for discussion. Lesbian feminists are extremely critical 25 about male dominance within the gay movement, although some men declare themselves feminists and like-minded about the way in which power and hierarchy are used within the movement. Gay liberation, integration and identity are the leading sub-paragraphs in the last chapter.

Radical gays and lesbian feminists strive above all for separatism, whereby they, in fact, turn away from society. The integration strategy strives towards giving homosexuality a more visible and recognisable position among heterosexuals. In the end, however, the conse- quences are positive. Increased awareness developed on its own position. The agenda can be read in the first note on Homo- sexuality in Government Policy the HiHo note from Now that lawful discrimination has been lifted, various Departments Ministries can take power into their hands to focus on policies for the integration of homosexuality.

A novelty in the HiHo note was the summary per Department of demands and policy meas- ures. At first, a large quantity of backlogs had to be tackled, such as the manner in which fam- ily law was organised, and the ending of acute discrimination, for example in the Civil Service army, police, foreign service. The highlight was , when marriage was opened up to couples of the same sex. That went hand in glove with the experiences of many women who saw marriage as synonymous with patriarchal suppression.

However, under pressure from public opinion and the lobby from a part of the gay grassroots supporters, the COC made an about-turn and put themselves behind the demand for the opening up of marriage to couples of the same sex. The change in the marriage law seemed to have an unexpected consequence.

For the Round Table conference that the coordinating Minister organised afterwards at a dinner in a prestigious The Hague hotel, representatives from 52 organisations were in- vited. The titles of the consecutive chapters show which issues are of importance: visibility, safety, education, sport, multicultural society, work and welfare.

At the last moment another chapter on international co-operation was added. Each chapter begins with a short introduc- tion describing the current situation, and highlighting the areas where it would appear from research that there is a shortfall within society. This is followed by a number of concrete policies and action points that the government should pick up on. The question of how successful this strategy can be depends mainly on the degree to which the gay movement succeeds in finding answers to the following issues: Significance of the Gay Identity The difficult definition question surrounding LGBTIQ is not just a linguistic acrobatic act.

The gay movement in the Netherlands still makes a conscious choice to maintain sexual preference as the central focus of its existence. The consequence of this is that a large group of people remains shut out, heterosexuals in the first place. The COC has always had a lot of difficulty in clarifying what the organisation means for bisexuals and transgenders. In addition, since the s, paedophiles have been excluded, this having also to do with the fear of not wanting to be associated with a socially unacceptable group of people.

A more post-modern queer approach where identities are unstable or ambiguous, and where one could demonstrate today as an animal activist, tomorrow as a radical bisexual and the day after tomorrow as a smart academic, has never struck a chord in the Netherlands, the country where one always wants to know whom one is dealing with.

Even amongst those for whom sexual preference is a central element of their personality there is a differ- ence of opinion about the consequences of such a choice. It seems that homosexuality forms an unsatisfactory basis for such a truly broad movement. Amsterdam professor of sociology Jan Willem Duyvendak made a distinction in the s between longing and belonging.

Without that ideology the s analyses failed to become common property. It is because of the weakness of the Dutch gay movement that it has never succeeded in becoming a truly inclusive movement where well-educated men can find a place alongside women, bisexuals, transgenders, minorities, handicapped and others.

Where a strong social agenda existed in the s and the gay movement linked itself to other minority groups, it would now seem that any future partnerships would be for more tactical than ideological reasons. That came out of interviews in Gewoon Doen, and also from interviews that have appeared in the press in connection with talking about an increase in anti-gay violence.

There is an additional argument at the administrative level. Societal acceptance must, above all, be fulfilled at both a meso and micro level. The government itself has already been busy for several years making the local government levels and social organisations responsible. Generally, local government is not waiting for this. The change in marriage laws has led to the image that there is no longer any difference between homosexuals and heterosexuals.

At the same time, the denominational segregation in the Netherlands That really does still exist! The unexpected return of religion in the social debate at the turn of the century will have astonished and agitated many. Several subjects have been left lifeless on the battlefield.

First of all, there is the difficult relationship between legal fundamental rights and exceptions claimed by religious organisations and persons to the Equal Treatment Act Wet Gelijke Behandeling. For ex- ample there is the issue of the officials who refuse to marry same-sex couples.

This demon- strates how complicated it is. Supporters of the complete separation of church and state will insist that all civil servants must execute the law. The central point is that religion seems to enjoy preferential treatment and therefore the separation between church and state is insufficiently maintained.

In addition to this as also re-confirmed by the SCP-survey , the degree to which one sees oneself as being religiously tied defines a nega- tive attitude toward homosexuality. It was the arrival of islam in particular that refuelled the discussion on the influence of religion. However, the gay movement must be aware not to be wrongfully misused in a discussion that is not about homosexuality but about integra- tion. The homophobia of groups of Moroccan and Turkish youngsters, as widely displayed in the media, has been used by both the religious right and secular left to claim every new case of ag- gression towards gays as an example of failing integration.

At the same time, research has shown that - overall in the Netherlands - there are more native Dutch gay bashers than bashers from immigrant communities. In the larger cities, immigrant youth are active participants in street cul- ture, which is often very homophobic with its values of masculinity. The question and the figures of the last youth monitor from in Rotterdam show for example that native boys display increasing homophobia is why, specifically, boys in these cities have ended up in a situation where it is cool to act extremely homophobic; and then, how to use this knowledge strategically.

The government has, more or less, forced the gay movement to deal with providing community care for LGBTs from immigrant communities who often face extreme rejection within their own. The integration of immigrant gays within the gay movement however, is not going smoothly, for the same reasons as discussed above.

This is not only urgent, but pos- sibly the biggest challenge for the gay movement. Unwillingness to Face the Truth Lastly, the gay movement has always flinched from facing certain socially sensitive issues around homosexuality. The movement has for a long time distanced itself from both these issues due to fear of social rejection.

When the age of consent returned to sixteen, the gay movement did not protest; nor when gay bookshop Vrolijk and producers of erotic material had problems due to new legislation that penalises the use of photographs of people who look under eighteen. Vulnerable groups like illegal asylum seekers cannot generally count on the support of the gay movement. There is a lack of knowledge about this group.

Difficulty still arises concerning negative news about homosexuality. An example: at the end of last century, when an extensive study on mental health in the Netherlands was published the so-called NEMESIS research by the Trimbos Institute the whole movement collectively took offence to the Utrecht researcher,Theo Sandfort, who demonstrated that the mental health of gays and lesbians in the Netherlands was worse than that of the population in general.

If we really want to fight stereotype and exaggerated image forming, the least we should do is ensure that the diversity of LGBTIQs is brought outside to air. It is rather a matter of continuity than of major changes these last forty years. Not only are the players much the same, but the political strategy is still focussing on lobbying key figures within the national political establishment. But it is disconcerting to see, when comparing notes from the eighties and nineties with those from today, that there is also a lot that the gay movement has NOT achieved.

If, for example, a note from the eighties had been submit- ted in place of a recent policy, it is possible that not everyone would have noticed it imme- diately. The legal fight has been fought, but a real embedding and anchoring of homosexuality as a lifestyle is still high on the agenda.

In that sense, old analyses on heteronormativity are as valid today as they were thirty years ago. Herein lies - just as thirty or forty years ago - the urgency for gay liberation. Judith Schuyf is an archaeologist. She has been active in the LGBT movement since the s. Tielman, 2 Tielman, R. Schuyf, 3 Schuyf, J. Press, , p. Tielman, 4 Tielman, , p. Tielman, 6 Tielman, , p. See 7 R. As a humanist, I often ran into resistance from christian circles.

Can these experiences be useful in dealing with hostility towards homosexu- ality in the Netherlands, which has become increasingly visible in muslim circles? Paradox as Paradigm In the current discussion about islam in the Netherlands, hostility towards homosexuality among muslims is often used as a touchstone to gauge whether or not muslims can effec- tively be full citizens in our democratic constitutional state. In this discussion, concepts such as islam and homosexuality seem completely unambiguous, but they are not.

The purpose of this article is to investigate what these concepts stand for and examine whether the seem- ingly persistent contradiction between gay liberation and islamic liberation in the Nether- lands is really a contradiction at all. Or, to use my own phrase, paradox as paradigm Tielman, I will discuss eight paradoxes. My answer was that there was apparently a big problem at their school, as one in twenty teach- ers and students felt so unsafe they did not dare to be open about their sexual preferences.

This is the first paradox. Anyone who claims he or she does not know any homosexuals apparently associates with a lot of gays and lesbians who are still in the closet. During my visits to those countries, not a day passed in which I did not find an underground gay network. These trips helped me to put together an overview showing the number of countries in which social and judicial discrimination against gays and lesbians creates a genuine threat to public health Tielman, , This is the second paradox.

Cultures that make a taboo of homosexuality in order to prevent it exacerbate the threat to the health and happiness of more people than homosexuals. While writing my thesis on the history of the liberation of homosexuals in the Netherlands, I discovered how important language was in explaining hostility towards homosexuality Tielman, It was only because of the gay liberation movements in the twentieth century that neutral such as same-sex or homosexual and positive gay terms were accepted, and homosexual- ity became open to public discussion.

In Arabic, neutral or positive words do not yet exist for homosexuality; the words currently used arouse immediate associations with anal rape and child abuse. This is the third paradox. Much of the resistance against homosexuality is caused by something totally different from what we mean by homosexuality, and that confu- sion of tongues cannot be solved by not talking about it, but only by creating new words that are unambiguous to all. Same-sex relationships between men and between women have occurred in all times and cultures Aldrich, But the words and forms used for it vary greatly.

The gay identities known in contemporary Netherlands did not exist when the Torah, Bible or Koran were written, and are primarily social constructions of the twentieth century. The word homo- sexuality is not even a century and a half old. Consequently, a party claiming to stand for freedom can, in practice, encourage the suppression of dissenters. Who can forget how undemocratic the German Democratic Republic was?

This brings us to the fourth paradox. Those who use certain words without criticism must be suspect because there is a substantial risk that this use of words conceals an opposing reality. It frequently occurs in gay-hostile cultures that gay men marry lesbian women just to satisfy social hetero pressure while with mutual con- sent maintaining gay sexual relationships or contacts in secret.

Where does the idea of human self-determination versus community compulsion, provided by either gods or states, come from? Humanism as Ideological Self-determination Humanists base their creed on the assumption that people can and will give meaning and shape to their existence themselves as long as this does not affect the right of self-de- termination of others Tielman, This dialogue can investigate words and their meanings, help to avoid linguistic confusion and nurture a new common language in which the different purposes and meanings are better understood.

This brings me to the fifth para- dox. In cultures where humanists and human rights play an important role, conditions are most advantageous for peaceful co-existence among people who practice different religions. A secular state can be the best guarantee for a diversity of religions. As chairman of the Dutch Humanist League and of the International Human- ist and Ethical Union , I have frequently engaged in such dialogues, from the Vatican to the Soviet Union, and this experience made me realise the current discussion in the Netherlands about homosexuality and islam contains more linguistic and terminological confusion than dialogue.

Humanists could and should seek improvement in this matter. In , after sixty years of struggle, the criminalization of homosexual contacts between adult men with men in the age group 16 to 21 was finally abolished. Article , Dutch Penal Code. Two years later, after 27 years, the COC obtained legal recognition. Gays could no longer be barred from entry into the civil service. However, these triumphs in the struggle for equal treatment were met by stiff resistance from christians.

In the fifties, Catholic activ- ists tried to have all homosexuals placed under a restriction order and confined to mental hospitals where - even in the sixties - they were castrated Tielman, In that climate of hostility towards homosexuality it would be tempting for me, as a hu- manist, to challenge churches and religions.

But as a humanist, I had to respect the right of self-determination of others. However, what could not be accepted is the phenomenon that some religious people, invoking reference to a higher power, lay down the law for others. Fortunately, many religious people thought the same way. Important examples in the struggle for equal treatment were father Van Kilsdonk and the protestant ministers Brussaard and Klamer. Together with Klamer, I attended many meetings with christians who were gay-hos- tile in that period and learned a lot about the misuse of allegedly anti-gay texts in the bible.

Take, for example, the destruction of Sodom. That was commonly cited as a punishment of god for homosexuality. Similar interpretation of texts can be debated end- lessly. But, according to Klamer, the essence of the case contained three things: 1. Centuries ago, everyone was supposed to be heterosexual, to marry and have children. In that context homosexual contacts were, by definition, extramari- tal and thus disapproved. These could not be disapproved of on the grounds of biblical texts.

Those who think the bible has to be interpreted literally from cover to cover cannot live up to that expectation in practice because there are many commandments and interdictions in the bible that are no longer adhered to by those same christians the prohibition on eating pork or even being punishable stoning wicked people. In the end, god is the almighty judge that assesses who goes to heaven or not and he who presumes to sit on his throne commits a form of arrogant and blasphemous behaviour.

These rules of thumb enunciated by Klamer lead to the sixth paradox. Those who presume to prescribe the law to others through holy books usually act in violation of these same holy books themselves. By not resisting religious persons as enemies but searching for key figures in religious circles that were willing to act as allies in the struggle for universal equal treatment including for gays and lesbians , the basis of the gay movement was broadened substantially. This does not alter the fact that it was not until that homosexuals were recognised as victims of persecution during the Second World War Schuyf, If it took Dutch so- ciety such a long time to accept equal treatment of gays and lesbians and if large parts of the world have not yet come this far, is it then so hard to understand that this is not accepted immediately by people from gay-hostile cultures?

One should place oneself in the shoes of someone who knows what is going on, is possibly involved in it himself but would never speak of it and is then confronted with a culture such as the Netherlands where eve- rything is open, in the streets and in the media. No wonder hostility towards homosexuality occurs mostly in sub cultures that have most to hide. And that brings me to the seventh paradox. Hostility towards homosexuality is greatest in people and sub cultures that are largely confronted with homosexual behaviour that is not a matter of mutual consent in- volving rape, for example and is in every case unspeakable.

Does this mean that we have to just leave it at that? Not at all! But it does provide an answer to the question 35 of where hostility towards homosexuality comes from being furtive and secret, often being unwanted and violently imposed, and unexpressed in neutral or positive language and pos- sibilities for identification. And it helps in finding strategies to come to improvements; not to provoke, but to draw clear boundaries no violence , inform about the own gay history in which many positive examples can be provided of same-sex expressions at that time, and make the issues debatable with the help of key figures and allies.

A classic misunderstanding of many people in or from developing countries is that the practice of same-sex relations was imported from the colonial West, while it was actually gay-hostile colonial penal legisla- tion that stigmatised existing accepted same-sex relations Aldrich, In addition, the negative attitude of adolescents from gay-hostile cultures is promoted by the convoluted manner with which it is dealt at many schools.

With an open and honest approach towards homosexuality in education, curiosity will win over hostility towards ho- mosexuality, but most heterosexual Dutch teachers do not dare to engage in conversations about homosexuality with students, rendering these teachers and school directors acces- sories to increasing hostility towards gays in education Van Maaren, On the other hand, it is conceivable that many gays and lesbians are feeling threatened by this increasing hostility towards homosexuality and associated anti-gay violence.

In particular, older gays and lesbians in the Netherlands remember their heavy struggle for equal treatment. Their reluctance to re- engage in that struggle all over again with regard to islam is understandable. Nonetheless, it would not be right to present the homosexual and muslim liberation movements as two phenomena exclusive of each other. Therefore, the mutual creation of an image is of importance.

Anyone who believes that all gays want to dance naked on boats in the canals of Amsterdam and that all muslims want to beat up gays needs to be better informed. Fortunately, this education is already improving Brugmans, ; Nahas, But there is still a lot of work needed to clarify the idea that in talking about islam and homosexuality, these terms are often abducted by those at the extreme ends of the spectrum and there is a lot more diversity than the apparent univocal notions lead one to assume.

My eighth paradox therefore suggests that, although it is labelled as islamic, hostility towards homosexuality is often not islamic at all; in reality it could include cultural traditions that might have a western colonial background. The word homosexuality does not exist in the koran: daily, its rules of behaviour are interpreted and re-interpreted. The example of female circumcision makes it clear the koran is frequently misused to legitimise cultural traditions that descend from other sources.

The history of the gay liberation movement can serve as a model to better understand the liberation of the muslim Dutchman. The perspective of common liberation movements is more rewarding than the image that the liberation of the one should automatically mean discrimination against the other.

This last image, in particular, is caused by a negative view of freedom: freedom interpreted as the absence of compulsion. This leads to the freedom of the stronger and the lack of freedom of the weaker and thus to a struggle for power with more losers than winners. Those who take a positive view of freedom know that freedom is not about the absence of rules, but about the presence of such rules that include respecting the right to self-determination for everybody, hence that of the weaker.

Tolerance then, is not meekness, but the active contesting of every violation of the right of self-determination. It requires maximum alertness where human rights are threatened. Knowledge of comparable developments in the past can be of tremendous value.

Rob Tielman took his Ph D in In he became denominational professor as a human- ist in social and cultural aspects of humanism at the University of Utrecht. He is current chairman of the board of the Dutch Humanist Archive. Literature Aldrich, R. Aldrich, R. Blankevoort, E. Boelaars, B. Brugmans, E. Gasenbeek, B. Keuzenkamp, S. Maaren, P. Nahas, O. Schuyf, J.

Taia, A. Tielman, R. She has four sisters and two brothers. Her grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins all live in the same city. She lives with one of her sisters and has no contact with her mother. One of her other sisters knows about her relationship but she prefers to keep her preference for women secret from the rest of the family. Later my mother came over and finally my father. They were still very young, fifteen years old. My parents met in Turkey. My father thought my mother was beautiful and asked for her hand in marriage.

My father has a girlfriend in Turkey and now he lives there too. He comes back every two months to see his children and then he goes again. My mother still lives in the same place. There are seven children. My father adored my mother. But he was also aggressive. He was a drug addict. And he had lots of affairs. Once my mother caught him in bed with another woman. After that they got divorced.

They would often split up and then the whole family would rally together. Then they would get back together again and it would be ok for a month or so. You can get a heavy prison sentence in Turkey for using drugs. You can even be punished for smoking a joint, and my father had been on heroin.

They moved in together as soon as they met. Financially my father is doing ok. He has his own business together with my brother and a business partner. He has houses in Turkey, which he rents out. My mother brought us up. All in good measure, as she would say.

She was re- ally happy with the mobile phone. She could always reach us. We were allowed to go out as long as we had our phone with us. And everyone knows my brother of course, so he gets to hear everything. I live with her. If we made a mistake my father would get very angry. When I was ten I could read the Koran, which in those days was incredibly young. That was thanks to my father.

But I also had a genuine interest in it. When I was a teenager we had a female imam who talked a lot about our religion. Every Saturday and Sunday I would go and visit her with my two cousins and we would ask her things. We went because we wanted to, not because my mother made us go. It was nice. When I was eleven or twelve I noticed that I never fantasised about men, just about women. But some friends from my circle are already married and already have children.

Those questions stifle me. I think, oh my God, how long can I go on like this? How long can I hold out? It makes me scared every year I get older. It gets more and more difficult the older I get. It was really strange. She was at my place, maybe half a year ago. Do you prefer women? I like women. I have a girlfriend. She thought I was joking. Our conversation lasted about half an hour. She asked if she could take me to see an imam.

Yes ok, talking to a boy is maybe nice, but nothing more than that. Male friends, yes, but nothing more than that. I thought, let it go. It did take a weight off my shoulders because she was the first person who knew about it. That was the first and last time we spoke about it.

I discovered that my girl- friend had been sleeping around with someone else. So then I told my youngest sister. She picked up on it because she could see that I was upset. She took it really well. That was really nice. I have the feeling that my other sister knows as well. We always shared the same room, had the same friends, we went everywhere together.

I had a talk with her once on the phone. I live with my second youngest sister. She has no clue. I met her in a pub in Rotterdam through some friends. I had one girlfriend at school, and another on holiday. But it is my longest relationship. No one asks where I am. I start at 4. That was a really nice few days, together with my youngest 41 sister. They know each other. I took her home and she asked if I wanted to play a game of draughts.

She loves drinking and going out. Her parents owned the pub so drinking and going out is quite normal to her. For me both sides are a struggle. What makes it even more difficult for me is that my family - my aunts and uncles - are very fond of me. Everyone thinks of me as Gunar, the good girl who respects her elders. That makes it even more difficult to tell anyone. They have an idealized picture of me.

My uncle likes me so much he wants me to marry his son. Then I think to myself, if only you knew! Their image of me would be shattered. My motto is let sleeping dogs lie. Aunts, uncles, brother. If I were to begin my story in the morning I would still be telling it to everyone the next day. They know everything about me, except for my sexual preferences. Some weight has come off my shoulders since my sister knows about it.

I can always phone her, can always talk to her about my girlfriend. That gives me a good feeling. Two women are not meant to be together. I heard that from my other sister. I wish there was a pill you could take to make you hetero. No one in my family would want to have a homosexual child. If you get mar- ried, you get married to a man.

You must have children, live happily ever after. I was born on it. The psychologist was a decent bloke. He listened and nodded and that was that. He referred me to a bisexual Turkish woman in Amsterdam. I saw her twice. Just to talk to. She was much further than me. She had a brother and he was ok about it. She was younger than me, about twenty. She was much more open about it than me. In Almelo there was a Turkish girl who went out with an Iraqi boy.

Her father found out and shot her. Harping on like: Are you really sure? How is it possible? Are you ill? I have my honour and pride too. I know my brother would look for me. It would cause my family a lot of 43 pain. People always come up with some story. Her publications focus on topics such as loverboy issues and honour-related violence. Mariette Hermans MA is a freelance journalist. Since October she has been editor of Maatwerk, a professional paper for social workers. She also writes for non- profit organisations on the subject of gender, ethnicity and sexuality.

In his introduction, Aldrich offers a variety of sketches of that behaviour. He examines the different terms for homosexual behaviour. He suggests that, on the one hand, a sort of sexual globalization has taken place and the modern world enjoys an open sexual culture with a large number of different outlets for sexuality between members of the same sex, both in their behaviour and in their identity.

He points to a lively, positive and open homosexual and lesbian culture in most of the larger cities of Europe, America, Australia and Asia. In some other countries, however, many men and women choose to live their non-main- stream lifestyle less publicly, and there are also cultures, such as in the Middle-East and North Africa, where no institutionalised public life exists for gays and lesbians.

Women and men who harbour homosexual feelings do not flaunt them in public or assume a homosexual identity. Meanwhile, there are places where sexual acts with members of the same sex make up part of centuries-old initiation rites. Despite sexual globalization, therefore, we cannot ignore geographic, cultural and historical differences.

A study of the history of same-sex relationships and examination of other cul- tures can serve to provide a context for our ideas about sexual attitudes and behaviour, and teach us to look differently at dominant sexual standards and values.

Aldrich demonstrates this through his description of developments in Australia, including within aboriginal cultures, where lots of proof of oral and anal practices between men as well as indications of sexual acts between women has been found. The result is therefore not just an excellent combina- tion of generalised and specialised knowledge, but draws on information contained in recent publications in languages other than English.

Judging from the literature list and the notes that attend each chapter, we can gather just how broad and diverse the research of mainly western academics has been, certainly in the last decade. Charles Hupperts, lecturer at the Universi- ty of Amsterdam, examines the classical Greek and Roman world.

There are two chapters dedicated to the early-modern era. The persecution of sodomites varied in intensity according to the times and the country, but seems to have been rare in Orthodox Russia. At the same time, male homo-social cultures flourished, not only in humanistic Italy, but also, for example, within the more privileged classes of France and Sweden. Drawing on both recent and older research from the s and 90s , she demonstrates that there are actually no grounds for the traditional assumption that sexual relations between women were unimaginable before She demonstrates that pre-modern lawmakers were substantially inclined to agree that women could also fall under the definition of being involved in sodomy, which was branded a capital crime though relatively few cases of the punishment are known to have been applied.

The most well-known cases involved women who went through life as men and sometimes even married women. Given the relatively limited social and physical freedom of movement for women, lesbian intimacy would have been practised far more often behind closed doors than sex between men.

The first is that in the big cities of western Europe, homosex- ual subcultures existed outside the privileged classes about which information has survived. Police sources provide the most information, including information about their persecution. The second development was that eighteenth century Enlightenment intellectuals cited homosexuals in secular terms as opposed to religious terms.

Sodomy went against nature, perhaps, but was caused by social and psychological influences. So they could condemn both sodomy and its repression. Social and moral improvements would be the best remedy, they maintained. That led eventually to the third important development: reforms in the penal law in a number of countries on the European continent, leading to the decriminalising of sodomy. At the end of his article, Sibalis establishes a link between increased visibility and the growing medical and psychiatric interest in homosexuality.

Brett Genny Beemyn, University of Massachusetts, takes the analysis across the Atlantic, to differing cultures and nearly three centuries in North, Meso and South America. Beemyn is one of the few male contributors who demonstrates an eye for diverse gender relation- ships as well as the literature of female researchers.

Sexual relationships within male and female societies are well documented and very readable, similar to the romantic friendships of women and their true companions as celebrated by such artists as Thoreau and Whitman. Her article is another demonstration that it is possible to write about female as well as male same-sex experiences. She explains how developing medical insights gained a broader audience via literature think, for example, of Proust and Radclyffe Hall , but at the turn of the century the public at large became aware of homosexuality in the context of countless scandals.

Social control from family and church was thought to be pressure enough to keep female sexuality in check, Tamagne explains. But she notes as well that the fear that changes in the law would open up information to women about sexual practices they were thought to know nothing about could also have played a role. The chapter on the post war period by Domenico Rizzo researcher in late modern his- tory and gender at the University of Naples is as good as gender-blind.

Most new information for relative insiders is in the three chapters about other cultures, in which Lee Wallace, from the University of Auckland, demonstrates that she is uniquely qualified to give attention to women as well as men and other genders.

The sometimes gruesome punish- ments for sexual deviance that were imposed by colonial authorities in all the parts of the American continent is depicted graphically and vividly in the colour engraving that accompanies the chapter. His contribution to the book includes interpretations of the Koran and literature with homo-erotic undertones going back to the eighteenth century , an analysis of sex tourism, which started there late in the nineteenth century, and the current situation.

The sexual division in society there is based on strongly masculine and hierarchical lines, its most important distinction being between the male man and its opposite - everything that is not women, boys, slaves, concubines, servants, transves- tites, hermaphrodites and even non-believers in the faith. In different periods in Chinese history there was a strong association between theatre the exclusive domain of men and same-sex relations.

Women were subservient to men in most Chinese societies any- way. Carton thinks that the fact that all sexuality was closely guarded is the explanation for female love being kept out of his sight, apart from in some beautiful illustrations. One of those is the closer collaboration between gays and lesbians. From a Dutch point of view, that seems an under- statement, since lesbians were crucial to the organisation of buddy-solidarity, but have got very little attention for the ways in which AIDS has hit women.

Both its title and contents seems a little less subtle and lays more stress on male homosexuality than the English origi- nal. In order to make it possible for the illustrations to appear on the same pages in both the English and Dutch versions, some parts of the original text have been edited out of the Dutch version, which is a real pity.

For me that is reason enough to prefer the English version, but reading at least one is a must. Her studies at Utrecht University included the history of women and homo sexuality. Notes 1 This is a review of: Aldrich, Robert ed. Byrne Fone, US pioneer in the field of Gay Studies, has devoted an extensive book to this theme in entitled Homophobia: a History.

This book begins its historical overview with the theory that few social groups escape the consequences of prejudice. Homophobia is the last accepted prejudice, at least in modern western society, where racism has been rejected, anti-Semitism condemned and women-hatred has lost its legitimacy. However he can be criti- cised for the fact that he limits his studies only to sections of western society.

The term homophobia was only used for the first time at the end of the s. Fone admits that, in that sense, the use of the term in a historical overview from around BC till the end of the s is fairly anachronistic. Fone suggests that, until recently, lesbians were as good as invisible throughout history. He maintains that he did his utmost best to find examples of historic prejudice against lesbians, but he barely succeeded.

Fone reasons that preconceived opinions of lesbians versus preconceived opinions of gays differ as much as sexism against men vis-a-vis sexism against women, so this would require a whole different book on the subject of female homophobia. That the root of homophobia lies in sexism is what James Baldwin argued in , as sum- marised at the beginning of chapter 21 p. His book is, in fact, more descriptive than analytical or explanatory. A lot has already been written on the history of homosexuality, but the history of homophobia has had much less systematic attention, he states.

He claims to sketch the social, religious, legal, political, moral and philosophical dimensions of homophobia through the ages. But such a broad range could not be completely covered in the book. It is apparent from the 38 pages of notes that the author has based his work on an enormous number of historical studies into subjects that include pedastry, sodomy and homosexuality in different western countries.

Unfortunately, there is no literature list, so it is not immediately apparent that Fone refers only to English language publications. This is perhaps understandable for an American researcher, but it is a pity. The starting point of the book is ancient Greece, depicted mostly as a society in which relations and sex between men, or men and adolescent boys, were associated with the high- est moral values.

He points to a connection with the subservient position of women. Homosexual behaviour was also accepted in Roman times, within conventional sexual and social borders. Only since the spread of christianity did homosexuality come to be considered a greater problem. It convincingly argues that, in the centuries around the time of christ, the Old Testa- ment story of Sodom and Gomorra became gradually interpreted as a biblical condemna- tion of homosexual practises.

Interpretation of other parts of the Old Testament that came to be taken as anti-gay, are also cleverly reconstructed. It is often pointed out that the Old Testament contains at least as many terrible pronouncements on women as the koran. Some things have been positively corrected, in particular the gospel according to Paul.

It is noteworthy that the three most explicitly negative references to male same sex activity are all to be found in chapters ascribed to Paul. This was embedded in the condemnation of sexual pleasure, because Paul believed, along with other christian writers, ascetics and Jewish scribes, that sex was only intended for procreation. Paul was also the first to write negatively about women who, in a sexual sense, exchanged the natural for the unnatural.

According to Fone, this can be interpreted initially as a condemnation of sexually active women whether or not engaged in same-sex activities as women were expected to be passive sexual part- ners. The next chapters of the book give a detailed description of the developments and shifts in attitudes towards homophobia by christians.

How and why the initial tolerance of same-sex practices in Jewish society or Judaism turned into intolerance and condemnation, at least in the Jewish orthodox faith, remains a closed topic for discussion, however. Catholics and Protestants have 51 been strongly divided on almost all topics of christian doctrine, but in their animosity toward sodomy they have been remarkably unanimous.

However, this never stopped them from ac- cusing each other of heresy and sodomy. Sometimes they are described as antagonists, sometimes as sodomites, homosexuals etc. Numerous historical examples from various western countries are cited. Insulting police officers by calling them gay falls into the same category, in fact.

In , some police officers in the Netherlands reported experiencing this and the public prosecutor along with some judges declared it a punishable offence. This shows that homophobia has not fully disappeared from the minds of the public, although, of course, pyres and gallows fall into a different category of homophobia.

Not long afterwards the Order of the Templars was eradicated with Papal approval beginning of the fourteenth century : the Templars, captured by the French king, confessed the most terrible sins after torture, mostly involving sodomy.

They would then be executed and their posses- sions handed over to the French king. In recent times the Templars have been rehabilitated by the Vatican and, in fact, been cleared of their deadly sins. Fone notes that the inquisition of the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries - espe- cially in Spain - prosecuted both heretics among them muslims and jews and sodomites.

This was due, he explained to the relative tolerance that was obtained in regard to same- sex practices when southern parts of Spain were still politically or culturally influenced by muslims. This brings up the question of when muslims and islamic exegetists turned from tolerance to intolerance regarding homosexual practices. It seems unthinkable that the author could not find any English publication on this topic.

The fact that the last chapters, and indeed almost everything he has written on the twentieth century, are based in the New World is no excuse. She studied, amongst other things, the history of women and homo sexuality at Utrecht University. One of the most exuberant films of the year, this documentary shows unseen archive footage of gigs, as well as unique images from the colonial era.

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